The main visa subclass for this is the Global Talent Visa stream of the subclass 858. Specifically: Migration Regulations 1994 (CTH) Sch 2 reg 858.212 (2).
This visa used to be referred to as the distinguished talent visa (subclass 124), however that visa stream has now been absorbed into the subclass 858.
You can apply for this visa from anywhere – outside or inside Australia.
It was created as part of Australia’s push to bring in the best talent to the country.
Global competition for talent is intensifying. Australia is working to attract the best and brightest, to help grow a stronger economy.
The Australian Government has established the Global Business and Talent Attraction Taskforce to attract high-value businesses and exceptionally talented individuals to Australia, along with their ideas, networks and capital.
Australia has dedicated talent attraction programs designed to turbocharge the Australian economy.
Department of Home Affairs